The S&P 500 Index started tracking stocks 64 years ago. The problem is most of those stocks are no longer in the index.
To remain indicative of the largest public companies in the United States, the index is reconstituted quarterly.
The S&P 500's most recent restructuring was on Mar. 12, 2021. NXP Semiconductors, Penn National Gaming, Generac Holdings, and Caesars Entertainment were added, replacing Xerox Holdings, Flowserve, SL Green Realty, and Vontier.
So when you see the chart, it is not giving you the performance of the same 500 companies over time. Rather it is skewed to high-performance companies each and every quarter.
1) retirement plans give you few investment choices
2) those choices do not replicate market returns
3) the plans are not individually tailored
4) no financial education is provided in any meaningful way
5) plans are long only, no hedges for bearish markets
6) changes can be made only quarterly
Never the less, Wall St. got the politicians to pass legislation that totally favors them!
Regulations have permitted employers to automatically enroll employees in retirement plans since 1998. Now the Secure Act 2 would require 401(k), 403(b) and SIMPLE plans to automatically enroll employees once they are eligible to participate in the plan. The initial enrollment amount must be at least three percent. Each year thereafter the amount is increased by one percent until it reaches the 10 percent limit.
The need for a will is becoming less and less. And going thru the probate process may become a thing of the past. Here is what you need to check on:
Brokerage Account: Transfer on Death (TOD)
A way of designating beneficiaries to receive your assets at the time of your death without having to go through probate. This designation also allows you to specify the percentage of assets each person or entity (your "TOD beneficiary") will receive. Your assets will then be automatically transferred to the designated beneficiaries upon your death.
Bank Account: Payable on Death (POD)
An arrangement between a bank or credit union and a client that designates beneficiaries to receive all the client's assets. The immediate transfer of assets is triggered by the death of the client.
Real Estate: Transfer on Death Deed
When the homeowner dies, title to the real estate passes to the beneficiary or beneficiaries, named in the Transfer-on-Death Deed, similar to how title passes in a Joint Tenancy Deed. This Deed avoids Capital Gains Taxes to be paid by the Beneficiaries at time of sale. Not all states allow them.
If you want to pass property to family members, look into a Quitclaim deed